Trampoline & Tumbling Glossary

Compiled by Deanna Hanford

Adolph Front salto with 3 1/2 LA twists.  Name comes from similarity to Rudolph (also see Rudolph).
Airplane TR; 1/2 LA twist to front drop: backward BA rotation is initiated before 1/2 twist.
Arabian Early 1/2 LA twist to a front somersault: backward rotation is initiated before 1/2 LA twist, which is initiated before front salto.
BA refers to breadth axis rotation as performed in a somersault.
Baby Fliffis (Barani Ballout)TR; forward somersault with 5 quarters of BA rotation initiated from the back, with a late 1/2 LA twist and landing on two feet.
Back Backward somersault that also specifies 4 quarters of BA rotation taking off from two feet and landing on two feet; examples: back tuck or back pike.
Backward indicates direction of skill only. DOES NOT specify whether take off or landing is from the feet.
Ballout TR; forward somersault with 5 quarters of BA rotation initiated from the back and landing on two feet.
Barani Front salto with 1/2 LA twist initiated past vertical.  Named for Italian circus acrobat, Alfonso Baroni circa 1881 (also see Rudolph).
Brani Aerial roundoff (forward somersault taking off from one foot with 1/2 LA twist and landing on two feet). Usually associated with artistic gymnastics and frequently confused for a Barani.
Barani Ballout (Baby Fliffis) TR; forward somersault with 5 quarters of BA rotation initiated from the back, with a late 1/2 LA twist and landing on two feet. Breadth Axis (BA) Rotation  Somersaulting rotation. Examples: front tuck, back tuck, porpoise.
Cat Twist TR;  Back drop to back drop laterally via 1/1 LA rotation.
Center Box TR; The middle box marked in red on a trampoline bed where an athlete bounces without penalty.
Cody TR; A backward somersault with 5 quarters of BA rotation initiated from the stomach and landing on two feet. Named for Joe Kotys of Akron, Ohio.
Corkscrew TR; A back drop to back drop, 1/2 BA rotation passing through vertical with 1 1/2 LA twist.
Cradle TR;  A back drop to back drop, 1/2 BA rotation passing through vertical with a 1/2 LA twist.
Crash Dive TR;  A 3/4 front somersault from feet to back
Crash Rule If an athlete has no possibility of standing up a landing, then a crash is called and the pass is interrupted, no further deductions are taken.  A crash differs from a fall in that somersaulting action was initiated.  In a fall, no somersaulting action is initiated.
Cruise TR; front drop to front drop, specifically 1/2 backward BA rotation with 1/2 LA twist initiated past vertical.
Dismount The last skill of a pass.
Dismount Bed DM; The horizontal second bed of a double mini trampoline where the mounting skill must land and where the dismount skill must take off from.
Double-mini Trampoline (DM) Double mini competitions are generally comprised of two 2-skill routines. "A pass on the Double Mini-trampoline is characterized by high, continuous rhythmic feet to feet rotational jumping elements, without hesitation or intermediate straight bounces" (FIG Code of Points).
DM Refers to Double Mini Trampoline
Doggie Drop TR;  A forward drop simultaneously to hands and knees.
Double Back A double back salto performed in a tuck position unless otherwise noted (e.g.double back pike).
Flic-Flac (Flic or flip-flop) TU; A tumbling skill performed from feet to hands to feet with backward somersaulting rotation.  Also known as a back handspring and named for the sound it makes.
Fliffis (Fliffus) A double somersault with at least a 1/2 LA twist.
Fliffis Ballout TR; A forward double (+) somersault with 9 quarters of BA rotation and at least 1/2 LA twist  initating from the back and landing on two feet.
Flip same as somersault, or salto.
Forward indicates direction of skill only. Does not specify whether take off or landing is from one or two feet.
Front Forward somersault and also specifies taking off from two feet and landing on two feet; examples: front tuck or front pike.
Full Back somersault with a full 1/1 LA twist.  A front somersault with full twist is a front full.
    Double Full Back somersault with two full (2/1) LA twists.
    Triple Full Back somersault with three full (3/1) LA twists.
Full in  Double back somersault with a full twist performed in the first salto.
Full out Double back somersault with a full twist performed in the second salto.
Half in half out A double back somersault with a half twist performed in the first salto and a half twist performed in the second salto.
Handspring TU; A tumbling skill from feet to hands to feet with either forward or backward somersaulting rotation.  A back handspring is also known as a flic-flac, flip-flop, or simply a flic.
In Indicates a twist or position performed in the first salto of a multiple somersault. Example: "full in", or "back pike in, full out".
Jonah A forward somersaulting skill with a very early 1/2 LA twist initiated before 1/4 BA rotation occurs.

Kaboom TR;  A forward or backward somersaulting skill that reverses BA rotational direction upon "double" contact made by the legs from a prone landing on the trampoline bed. Named for the noise it makes. Examples: 3/4 backward somersault landing on the stomach to a immediate reversal of direction to a forward somersault; or a 3/4 forward somersault landing on the back to an immediate backward somersault.
Kick out refers to straightening of the body after a tuck or pike position is shown.  Must occur by 12 o'clock in trampoline or double mini somersaulting skills or by 3 o'clock in tumbling skills for no penalty. Implies more dynamics than a press out.
Killer (Miller plus) A double somersault with 4 full LA twists. Named as an extension of a Miller.
LA refers to longitudinal axis rotation or twisting rotation.
Landing Area is the landing mats where the athlete can land the dismount skill.  The area contains both a "landing zone" that incurs no penalty and a surrounding "area" that does incur a penalty.
Landing Zone TU, DM; Designated zone within the landing area where a dismount lands without penalty.
Lazyback TR; 3/4 backward somersault from feet to stomach.
Lifters  TR, DM;  Devices to lift the trampoline pads off of the springs which allows greater rebound and less noise.
Longitudinal Axis (LA) Rotation refers to twisting rotation.
Miller  A double back somersault with a triple twist originally performed as a "2 1/2 in, Barani out".  More commonly seen as a full in, double full out.
Miller Plus (Killer) A double somersault with 4 full LA twists.
Mounter DM; A mounter skill performed by jumping to the mounting bed and immediately performing a skill onto the dismount bed.
Mounting Bed DM; The slanted first bed of a double mini.  This is the first bed touched by an athlete mounting the double mini trampoline.
Out Indicates a twist or position performed in the last salto of a multiple somersault. Example: "full out" or "full in, back straight out".
Out-bounce TR; The last straight jump performed after a 10-bounce trampoline  routine that incurs no penalty.  An athlete can choose to directly end a routine or take one out-bounce.
Penalty Zone DM;  Red-marked zone where the athlete is not allowed to touch due to safety issues.  Touching the red band is a 0.3 deduction. The penalty zone is located in between the mounting bed and the dismount bed, over base support structures.
Penalty Zone TU; Red-marked zone 1-foot wide located between the end of the tumble floor and the start of the landing mats.  Touching the penalty zone on take off is a 0.3 penalty.
Pike  A somersaulting body position where the body is bent at the waist bringing the upper body close to straight legs in a "V" shape.  The angle between the upper body and the thighs must be equal to or less than 135 and the angle between the thighs and lower leg must be greater than 135. The hands must make contact with the lower legs, ankles or feet.
Porpoise TR; A forward somersault with 4 quarters of BA rotation initiating from back and landing on the back. Looks like an aquatic skill performed by trained marine mammals.
Position Bonus (single saltos) TR, TU or DM;  A pike or straight position on a single somersault without twist earns 0.1 in difficulty bonus.
Position Bonus (multiple saltos) TR or DM; In trampoline or double mini, a multiple somersault in a pike or straight position will receive 0.2 in bonus.
Position Bonus (multiple saltos) TU; In tumbling, a double somersault in a pike position receives 0.4 in bonus and a straight receives 0.8 in bonus.  On triple somersaults, a pike receives 0.8 and a straight receives 1.6.
Press out refers to straightening of the body after a tuck or pike position is shown.  Must occur by 12 o'clock in trampoline or double mini somersaulting skills or by 3 o'clock in tumbling skills for no penalty. Implies more control than a kick out.
Puck  A somersaulting body position where the body is bent at the waist as are the legs resulting in a position halfway between a tuck and a straight.  The angle between the upper body and the thighs are 135 and the angle between the thighs and lower leg are 135.  This position is only allowable in twisting somersaults.  A puck position in a non-twisting somersault will result in a maximum deduction.
Pullover TR; A pullover is a skill that is a trainer for a backward somersault that has 3/4 of BA rotation initiating from a back drop and landing on two feet.
Quaffis (Quaffus) A somersault with 16 quarters of BA rotation and at least a 1/2 LA twist.
Quad Back somersault with four full 1/1 LA twist.
Randolph (Randi) A front somersault with 2 1/2 LA twist.  Named for similarity to a Rudolph.
Roll TU;  Somersaulting rotation with full support on a surface.  Examples: front roll, back roll, back extension roll.
Roller TR;  Seat drop to seat drop laterally via 1/1 LA rotation only (no BA rotation).
Rotation refers to movement around a body axis, either BA (somersaulting) or LA (twisting).
Round off TU; A tumbling skill initiating from a hurdle one foot take-off, with cartwheel action onto alternating hands with a quarter inward twist to two feet. A typical entry skill for a tumbling pass.
Rudolph (Rudi) A front somersault with 1 1/2 LA twist. Named for Vaudeville's Dave Roudolph who performed the skill on a trampoline in the late 1920s.
Rudi Ballout TR; A forward somersault with 5 quarters of BA rotation and 1 1/2 LA twist initiating from the back and landing on two feet.
Salto An aerial skill with at least four quarters of BA rotation. Examples: Front tuck, back tuck. See somersault, flip.
Slide refers to the specific action of straightening of the body after a pike position is shown.
Somersault An aerial skill with at least four quarters of BA rotation. Examples: Front tuck, back tuck.
Somersaulting Bonus TR; In trampoline, 0.1 is earned per quarter of BA rotation and an extra 0.1 is earned for completion of 4 quarters of BA rotation.
Somi Short for somersault.
Spotter A coach who observes a routine and is prepared to facilitate the safe execution or landing of a skill.
Spotter mat A soft mat that is used to control the landing of a difficult trampolining skill.
Spotter (spotter mount) DM; A type of mounting skill that uses the mounting bed for a straight jump up to the dismount bed where the first skill of the pass is performed.  Usually used for backward somersaulting skills.
Stability  This refers to the landing of the dismount skill and whether the landing was controlled, with no steps and the position held for 3 seconds.
Step-down  An alternating foot landing resulting in either interruption of a pass or other penalty dependent upon event and level.
Step-out This is a maneuver where an athlete splits their legs during  a somersault and lands on alternating feet. This is an artistic gymnastic move that does not apply to tumbling or trampolining skills, since a one foot landing is not allowed.
Straight  A somersaulting body position where the body is extended from head to toes.  The angle between the upper body and the thighs must be greater than 135.
String bed A type of trampoline bed utilizing bound strings.
Swivel Hips TR; seat drop with a 1/2 LA twist passing through vertical to another seat drop.
Take-off Zone TU;  The last 10 feet of the tumble floor that is marked in 1 foot intervals.  This is where the take off for the last skill must take place without penalty for level 7 and above routines.
Tempo TU; Also known as a whip, is a back somersaulting tumbling skill performed at or below shoulder level.
TR refers to Trampoline
Trampoline (TR) Trampoline competitions comprise a 10-skill compulsory routine and , in the higher levels, a 10-skill voluntary routine.  "A routine on trampoline is characterized by high, continuous rhythmic feet to feet and feet to back, front or seat rotational jumping elements, without hesitation or intermediate straight bounces." (FIG Code of Points)
Triffis (Triffus) A triple somersault with 12 quarters of BA rotation and at least 1/2 LA twist.
Triple Back A triple backward somersault with 12 quarters of BA rotation.
TU refers to Tumbling.
Tuck A somersaulting body position where the body is bent at the waist bringing the upper body close to bent legs in a tight ball-like shape.  The angle between the upper body and the thighs must be less than 135 and the angle between the thighs and lower leg must be less than 135. The hands must make contact with the lower legs on the shin.
Tumbling (TU) Tumbling competitions generally comprise 2 passes.  "Tumbling is characterized by continuous speedy, rhythmic hands to feet, and feet to feet, rotational jumping elements without hesitation or intermediate steps" (FIG Code of Points).
Tumbling Track  A floor constructed with a sprung surface, such as assembled units of rod flooring covered by padding used for tumbling.  A tumbling surface, for higher level competition, requires boundaries of 85' long by 5' wide.
Tumble Tramp A long narrow trampoline bed used for tumbling.
Turntable TR; A front drop to front drop that does not pass thru vertical, but rather rotates on a horizontal plane.  Originally performed with 360 rotation by Jim Blutch circa 1940s.  Previously called the Blutch.
Twist refers to LA rotation. Examples of somersaults with twist: Barani, Rudi, full.
Twisted Cody TR; backward somersault with 5 quarters of BA rotation initiated from the stomach and landing on two feet with at least a full 1/1 LA twist.
Twisting Bonus TR or DM;  Twisting bonus for TR or DM is 0.1 per 1/2 LA rotation.
Twisting Bonus TU; Twisting bonus for TU is 0.2 per 1/2 LA rotation.
Whip TU; Also known as a tempo, is a back somersaulting tumbling skill performed at or below shoulder level.
Within refers to the location of a twist in the middle salto of a triple somersault.
 
 

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